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While there are a number of excellent texts aimed at this market, Wallace's is more clinical and less theoretical, more concise to fit the length of the typical course, and it provides ""need-to-know vs. Its brief, yet comprehensive, grasp of issues in elder care is a refreshing addition to the current literature, which is more commonly focused on theory than on clinical practice. Test Drive. Table presents a timeline of significant accomplishments in the history of gerontological nursing. For a complete listing of John A.

Hartford Foundation funding for geriatric nursing, see www. The origins of gerontological nursing are rooted in England and began with Florence Nightingale as she accepted a position in the Institution for the Care of Sick Gentlewomen in Distressed Circumstances. The care in the institution was poor, the diet meager, and the nurses often drunk. But Miss Jones, under the tutelage of Nightingale, improved the care dramatically, as well as reduced the costs. As early as , Lavinia Dock and other early leaders in nursing addressed, in the American Journal of Nursing AJN , the needs of the elderly chronically ill in almshouses.

World War I distracted them from attention to these needs. But in , the ANA advanced the idea of a specialty in the nursing care of the aged. With the passage of the Social Security Act of , federal monies were provided for old-age insurance and public assistance for needy older people not covered by insurance.


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To combat the fear of almshouse placement, Congress stipulated that the Social Security funds could not be used to pay for care in almshouses or other public institutions. This move is thought to have been the genesis of commercial nursing homes. During the next 10 years, many almshouses closed and the number of private boarding homes providing care to elders increased.

Because retired and widowed nurses often converted their homes into such living quarters and gave care when their boarders became ill, they can be considered the first geriatric nurses and their homes the first nursing homes. An article in the AJN by Sarah Gelbach recommended that nurses should have not only an aptitude for working with the elderly but also specific geriatric education.

The first textbook on nursing care of the elderly was published by Newton and Anderson in , and the first published nursing research on chronic disease and the elderly Mack , appeared in the premier issue of Nursing Research in In a focus group was formed to discuss geriatric nursing, and in a geriatric practice group was convened.

Core Competencies | American Geriatrics Society

The first geriatric standards were published by the ANA in , and soon after, geriatric nursing certification was offered. Geriatric nursing was the first specialty to establish standards of practice within the ANA. In the Division of Geriatric Nursing changed its name to the Gerontological Nursing Division to reflect the broad role nurses play in the care of older people.

Whereas most specialties in nursing practice developed from those identified in medicine, this was not the case with the specialty of gerontological nursing since health care of older adults was traditionally considered to fall within the domain of nursing Davis, The most recent edition of Scope and Standards of Gerontological Nursing Practice ANA, provides a comprehensive overview of the scope of gerontological nursing and identifies levels of gerontological nursing practice basic and advanced and standards of clinical gerontological nursing care and gerontological nursing performance.

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The most significant influence in enhancing gerontological nursing has been the work of the Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing, funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation. Initiatives in nursing education, nursing practice, nursing research, and nursing policy include enhancing geriatrics in nursing education programs through curricular reform and faculty development; the development of nine Centers of Geriatric Nursing Excellence; predoctoral and postdoctoral scholarships for study and research in geriatric nursing; and clinical practice improvement projects to enhance care for older adults Mackin et al.

Funded by Atlantic Philanthropies, through the American Nurses Foundation, the initiative addressed the need to ensure competence in geriatrics among nursing specialty organizations. The initiative provided grant and technical assistance to more than 50 specialty nursing organizations; developed a free web-based comprehensive gerontological nursing resource center consultgerirn. An extension of this work, the Resourcefully Enhancing Aging in Specialty Nursing REASN project, will focuses on building intensive collaborations with 13 hospital-based specialty associations to create geriatric educational products and resources to ensure the geriatric competencies of their members see hartfordign.

Working with the Hartford Centers of Geriatric Nursing Excellence, the purpose of the GNLA is to develop the leadership skills of geriatric nurses in positions of influence in a variety of health care settings and to improve the quality of health care for older adults and their families www.

Essentials of geriatric care.

Basic competence is critical to ensure the best possible care for diverse populations of older adults. Essential educational competencies and academic standards for care of older adults have been developed by national organizations such as the American Association of Colleges of Nursing AACN for both basic and advanced nursing education ANA, The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice AACN, specifically address the importance of geriatric content and structured clinical experiences with older adults across the continuum in the education of students.

In addition, gerontological nursing competencies for advanced practice graduate programs have also been developed. All of these documents can be accessed from www. Those in the field of nursing education must seriously consider specific minimal requirements in the care of older adults at each level of education to fulfill the responsibility of nurses to the public and the profession and to meet accreditation criteria. It is important to provide students with nursing practice experiences caring for elders across the continuum of care.

For clinical practice sites, one is not limited to the acute care setting or the nursing home.

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Experiences with well elders in the community and opportunities to focus on health promotion should be the first experience for students. This will assist them to develop more positive attitudes toward older people, understand the full scope of nursing practice with older adults, and learn nursing responses to enhance health and wellness. Rehabilitation centers, subacute and skilled nursing facilities, and hospice settings provide opportunities for leadership experience, nursing management of complex problems, interprofessional teamwork, and research application for more advanced students.

Hartford Foundation, is to enhance geriatric content in senior-level undergraduate courses. The GNEC educational curriculum and evidence-based modules reflecting the state-of-the-science approach to care for older adults are available electronically and via webinars see www. Increasing potassium intake and decreasing sodium consumption may lower the risk of high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases.

Essentials of Gerontological Nursing

Foods rich in potassium include green leafy vegetables, fruits, yogurt and low-fat milk. Try to avoid foods with a high sodium content. Rather than using salt in dishes, replace it with herbs and spices to lessen the sodium intake. For overall health and weight control, fat calorie consumption should be at least 20 to 35 percent of the diet. Most of the fat intake should come from heart-friendly unsaturated fat sources like extra virgin olive oil, walnuts, canola oil, avocados, and almonds. Healthy older adults without heart disease should limit the consumption of saturated fats to 10 percent, while those with a high cholesterol history should limit it to 7 percent of their daily food intake.

Essentials Of Gerontological Nursing

Red meat, fried foods, and even full-fat dairy products should be used minimally or in some cases even avoided. It is a sad fact that as we age, we tend to be less active, lose muscle mass and gain fat. These changes cause the metabolism to slow down and require an individual to keep it up his or her entire lifespan. For older adults with a sedentary lifestyle, at least 2, calories should be consumed daily while for those with a moderately active lifestyle, calorie consumption should be at least 2, to 2, per day.

Moreover, an active older adult should consume at least 2, to 2, calories per day. This should be balanced with physical activity to keep up the metabolism, build muscles and increase energy levels. Good nutrition is essential to the overall health.

https://dypesultcepo.tk It is somewhat ironic that even though we gain weight as we age, a lot of us will be at a greater risk of malnutrition than ever before. Inadequate nutrition can lead to different health concerns like a weakened immune system, poor wound healing, and muscle weakness. Additionally, malnutrition can result in a decreased appetite and loss of memory. The cause of malnutrition is typically a lack of food consumption or in most cases a lack of sufficient nutrients. However, malnutrition arises due to some physical, psychological or social issue.

For instance:.

Gerontological Nursing

The signs of malnutrition among older adults are quite tough to detect, especially in those not at obvious risk. However, it is important to uncover this problem in its early stage to prevent complications. Signs of weight loss should be monitored along with poor wound healing, dental difficulties, and easy bruising.


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If your loved one is gradually losing weight, tell his doctor about it to identify and address the problem as early as possible. Encourage the elderly adult to eat foods rich in essential nutrients. Guide him with his eating habits and selection of food. Most elderly lose their appetite so it is best to use herbs and spices to make food tasty and palatable. Malnutrition can be treated if identified early. Older adults have a deteriorating health and energy levels which is why they need to be assisted with regular meal preparation, snacks and routine consultations.

If necessary, hire someone to help the elderly at home or ask your local area agency on aging how to go about dealing with this kind of concern.

Drug-related problems are very common in older adults. Other than adverse drug effects and overdosage, the absorption of oral medications is also affected by changes in the gastrointestinal tract. The aging process reduces GI motility, GI blood flow, and gastric acid secretion, which is why it reduces the absorption of drugs. Most older adults have medications for their existing medical conditions. These are given by their doctors to prevent or control certain imbalances in their blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar.

However, the problem with the prolonged use of oral medications is that it damages the liver and causes irreversible reactions. Thus, a regular doctor visit is necessary to manage their effects. Elderly individuals, no matter how good or bad their memory, should be informed about their treatment plan. Healthcare providers, including the family members, should grant them the right to know their current medical condition and maintenance drugs to promote compliance.